On April 15, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln died after being shot the evening before by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. The attack came five days after Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox, Va., effectively ending the Civil War. You’ll find these facts in just about every American history book. What has remained largely undocumented, though, is the fallout: how a nation deeply splintered by war and slavery reacted to the news of Lincoln’s assassination. In her new book, “Mourning Lincoln,” Martha Hodes, a history professor at New York University, has carefully woven a record of the innermost thoughts of common people around the country. In advance of a lecture at Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study on Monday, the Gazette spoke with Hodes about Lincoln’s legacy, as seen through the eyes of his supporters and critics alike, in the days following his assassination.GAZETTE: What sort of personal accounts did you collect for “Mourning Lincoln”?HODES: To research “Mourning Lincoln,” I read hundreds and hundreds of diaries, letters, and other personal writings, including Union and Confederate, black and white, soldiers and civilians, men and women, even children.GAZETTE: You have an upcoming lecture at the Radcliffe Institute of Advanced Study. Did you find anything of interest in the Schlesinger Library there?HODES: I found many wonderful archival collections at the Schlesinger Library, most important among them the Browne Family Papers. Two of the protagonists in the story I tell are husband and wife Sarah and Albert Browne, white abolitionists from Salem, Massachusetts. Albert was down South working for the Union Army, so he and Sarah wrote each other long letters, and Sarah also kept a diary at home in Salem. Apart from the Brownes, one of my favorite documents from the Schlesinger is the account book of an anonymous seamstress, which includes mention of Lincoln’s assassination squeezed into the woman’s financial records.GAZETTE: Today, Lincoln’s assassination is almost universally lamented. Was this the case at the time of his death?HODES: Not at all, no. I found it fascinating that Lincoln’s mourners wrote in their diaries and letters that the whole world was mourning for Lincoln when they could see all around them that that wasn’t true. For one thing, they knew that the vanquished Confederates were not mourning Lincoln, and many also knew that not all white Northerners were mourning. Lincoln’s northern enemies, members of the northern Democratic Party and their families, were just as gleeful as Confederates.GAZETTE: Did African-Americans have as complex a reaction as the rest of the nation?HODES: African-American leaders had criticized Lincoln during the war, pressing for more decisive action on emancipation. By the end of the war, though, they could look to the Emancipation Proclamation and to Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address, which had reckoned directly with slavery as a cause of the war. African-Americans, both North and South, genuinely grieved over Lincoln’s assassination.Printmakers met the public interest with an outpouring of prints, such as “Lincoln’s Death Bed.”GAZETTE: This being the first assassination of a sitting U.S. president, how did the White House respond? Did it accommodate mourners looking to pay final respects?HODES: Very much so. There was an elaborate funeral in Washington on April 19, just four days after Lincoln died. His body lay in state, with enormous crowds pouring in to view the body. Lincoln’s body was then taken on a two-week, 1,700-mile journey by train from Washington to his hometown of Springfield, Illinois, where he was buried on May 4. Along the way, the body was removed from the train for elaborate ceremonies in 11 cities.GAZETTE: How did people get on with their lives after hearing the news?HODES: One of the things I found most interesting while researching “Mourning Lincoln” is what I call the “persistence of everyday life.” This was partly a matter of necessity — women couldn’t simply ignore domestic labor, for example — but also a form of consolation. For the defeated Confederates, daily tasks were much more trying, since they were in mourning for their entire way of life.GAZETTE: Both the Union victory and Lincoln’s assassination were rationalized as the will of God. How did each side reconcile this contradiction?HODES: All through the war, both sides believed that God was on their side. Union supporters assumed that God had permitted Union victory, and Confederates were confounded that God had permitted them to lose the war. Then, with the assassination, Union supporters were dumbfounded that God had taken Lincoln away at the exact moment of Union victory, while Confederates took it as a sign from God that he really was on their side — even though they still couldn’t figure out why he had let them lose the war.GAZETTE: Did mourners try to justify his death as an act of martyrdom, even with the war coming to a close?HODES: Yes, indeed. Mourners tried to see the assassination as giving greater meaning to the Union victory, even if the larger purposes of divine will remained a mystery. And African-Americans invoked Lincoln the martyr in their quest to press on for equality.GAZETTE: In terms of the near-immediacy with which the public found out, would you call this the first act of real-time, international mourning in history?HODES: You’re right about the near-immediacy. The telegraph spread the word within hours, even as far as San Francisco. But the telegraph didn’t run everywhere, and parts of the U.S. didn’t get the news for weeks. It also took weeks for Europe to get the news, and elsewhere in the world it took months. And yet it felt to mourners as if the whole world was grieving from the moment Lincoln died. That illusion has shaped how we understand the response to Lincoln’s assassination 150 years later. That’s the point of “Mourning Lincoln,” to present a more complicated, more complex portrait of the hours, days, and weeks after Lincoln’s assassination, and to make sense of what that complexity illuminates about the aftermath of the Civil War.Martha Hodes will speak about “Mourning Lincoln” on Monday (April 27) at 4:15 p.m. in the Sheerr Room at Fay House, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, 10 Garden St., Cambridge.
Charlie McConalogue TDDonegal Fianna Fáil TD Charlie McConalogue has welcomed the outcome of the two referendums held at the weekend on the Seanad and the Court of Appeal, describing the Seanad referendum result as “a clear message for real political reform.”Deputy McConalogue commented: “The message from voters in Donegal was loud and clear at the weekend – they want real change in the political system and an end to cynical politics. The No vote on the abolition of the Seanad is a complete rejection of the Fine Gael, Labour, Sinn Féin platform. What we saw was a Government trying to increase their power, supported by a populist Sinn Féin.“I welcome the public’s support for the establishment of a Court of Appeal and believe the strong Yes vote there dispels any notion from Fine Gael and Sinn Féin that voters were confused. “During the campaign Fine Gael arrogantly stated there would be no reform of the Seanad if the referendum was defeated. People in Donegal did not vote for more of the same, they want real change. The Taoiseach has a duty now to engage with other parties and civil society in a serious discussion about real reform of our parliament and government.“We have tabled a list of proposed reforms including a significant move of power from Ministers to the Oireachtas. These proposals, and those of others including Senators Quinn and Zappone, should now be discussed. We need an end to the arrogant and dictatorial approach from this Government.” REFERENDUM: WE NEED REAL REFORM NOW, SAYS McCONALOGUE was last modified: October 7th, 2013 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Charlie McConalogue TDreferendumreformSeanad
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest With the current prices of most crops, I think the majority of growers would agree that profitability is high on their list of priorities. Critical to profitability is a healthy crop. Obviously, there are many variables involved in keeping a crop in top condition. Let’s look at several of the factors involved in keeping a plant functioning at full potential depending on the conditions.The first factor needed for optimum plant health is proper amounts of water — you know, not too much, not too little, just right. Mother Nature can keep growers wondering when the next rain will happen, while the ground is still black from the last rain. But, please don’t come so soon that the ground is water-logged, right? It is unnerving to have so much riding on timely rains, and when prices are low it seems like risks beyond our control are elevated.In areas that irrigate, it seems like life should be good. This is a controlled climate after all. Don’t be fooled, though. Irrigation can come with negative side-effects. First, if you irrigate, you are obviously in an arid or semi-arid climate, so evaporation rates can be high. Will equipment operate when it is most critical? Will my water source hold up? Whether lake, river or aquifer, most sources have their limitations. Plus, surface water sources have to be replenished and competition for stored water is heating up; whether it is used for recreation or to supply the growth for many desert metropolitan areas. If you don’t believe this is happening, just make a trip to California where they seem to be fighting annually for just enough water to keep permanent crops alive. Not enough water on a vineyard or almond orchard doesn’t just cost you a year of production, it can wipe out a lifetime of income potential.Then, if you have enough water to irrigate, the water can add issues to the soil. Almost no water source is as pure as rain and snow. Most other water sources bring elements that can accumulate in the top few inches of soil as the top layer filters the water on the way through. Sodium can be a common problem, but anything in the water can become excessive enough to cause problems if high amounts of water are needed and evaporation rates are high.Okay, enough about the value of quality H2O. Let’s move to the crop’s lifeblood — the soil. Climates have a big effect on this component of crop production. Rain falls through CO2 in the atmosphere and combines with water to end up a little (and I mean a little, not car-paint-ruining) on the acidic side of the pH scale. That sudden green-up that happens after a rain is often a direct benefit from a release of nutrients provided by the falling moisture. However, the more of this that is received, the more that valuable cations are flushed though the soil. These must then be replaced with lime to provide a good environment for microbes and plants to live.In arid areas, water movement is primarily upward due to evaporation. This often results in levels of cations that are too high in the soil surface. These can actually prevent water infiltration. Ever driven through a desert and see signs that say “watch for flash-flooding”? Seemed like a joke, didn’t it? But very high levels of cations left behind by evaporation causes water to sheet off during periods of rain, especially downpours. So the flash-flooding signs are no joke, just a reality that even moisture-starved soil may reject rain when the soil contains excesses. So could a limiting factor in crop production actually be a surplus of a nutrient that might otherwise be beneficial? It can be. Proper proportion is important.Regardless of what kind of environment a crop is produced in, most soils can be quite productive, contributing to profitability; maybe not assuring profits every year, but over the long haul. Soils that become acidic can be limed. Sulfur can be critical in soils with excesses. And in both of these, other nutrients can be affected. Most of these we can easily control with regular soil testing and diligent applications. For profitability during depressed price periods, producers need to fight the urge to forego liming or sulfur applications when they are needed. This money will have to be spent at some point and it is way better to keep up with these as needed then applying a bunch at one time.The next natural urge is to focus on a cheap nutrient just because the investment would be less. This is often nitrogen or potassium. But it is a poor use of capital to buy, and apply, a nutrient just because it is cheap if it isn’t limiting. Remember the part about excesses previously discussed in this article? Well, make sure to spend wisely. If an input is needed, then apply it. Mindful spending is critical in this current agricultural economy, but “mindful” is a long way from cheap. Mindful spending is smart. It requires discipline to avoid the tendency to save rather than spend smartly.Every producer must take the long-term approach to crop production. Profits are needed for short term survival, but healthy soils and crops are necessary for long term business building. Therefore, consistently good plant health is the way to long-term profits. Disciplined decisions are a critical part of this process.
Low-flush toiletsWe have two bathrooms: upstairs and downstairs. Both have Kohler high-efficiency toilets that use just 1.28 gallons per flush (gpf).I admit to having been somewhat skeptical that 1.28 gpf would be enough for satisfactory performance, but in the three months we’ve been in the house we’ve had zero problems. The toilets are performing beautifully. Water-efficient dishwasherWe bought a mid-range KitchenAid dishwasher and are very pleased with it so far. We operate it with the no-heat-dry feature selected on a normal or light cycle to further reduce water and energy use. Roughly 90% of the energy use by dishwashers is for heating the water, so a water-conserving dishwasher also saves a lot of energy. With the Normal cycle and assuming typical soiling of dishes, a load of dishes uses just 2.9 gallons — far less than was the case a decade ago.It’s worth noting that using a modern, EnergyStar-rated dishwasher typically consumes a lot less water than washing dishes by hand. Knee-control kitchen faucetWe brought down from the house we moved out of a great kitchen faucet control system made by TapMaster that lets you turn the faucet on an off by either pressing your knee into one of the under-sink cabinet doors or by pressing a toe plate with your foot. This way you can easily turn the water on and off while you’re washing a pot or rinsing dishes.There’s no reason to leave the water running, so moderate water savings can be achieved. It’s also a huge convenience! Water conservationIt is in this context that I consider water conservation to be an extremely important priority. We are fortunate in Vermont to have plenty of water, but I’m just back from California, which is dealing with one of the most severe droughts in decades. Flying over the Sierras on my way there I was shocked to see how little snow cover there was.So what are the water conservation measures we implemented at our new house? Low-flow showerheadsWe installed EPA WaterSense-certified showerheads that deliver 1.75 gallons per minute (gpm), vs. the federal standard 2.5 gpm for showerheads. Ours are Kohler Bancroft showerheads, and we are very pleased with them, though I’ve also used a Delta H2Okinetic showerhead using just 1.5 gpm and been very happy with that, and I recently used a Niagara Conservation showerhead rated at just 1.0 gpm and found that to work just fine.When we save water with a showerhead or faucet, we also typically save energy use directly, since we’re using less hot water. Indeed, in replacing older, high-flow showerheads with new low-flow models, the payback for that change is often measured in months or even weeks, instead of years. In this weekly blog, I’ve focused a lot of attention on the energy-saving measures at our new home — from the innovative insulation materials we used to the air-source heat pump heating system and our top-efficiency heat-recovery ventilator.What I haven’t said much about are the measures we’ve taken to reduce water use and why these measures save energy as well. Water is preciousIn the years and decades ahead, water may well be a bigger challenge than energy in many areas of the U.S. and world. We should all do our part by using this precious resource efficiently. At the same time, treating and distributing water and treating wastewater use a lot of energy. This is especially the case with municipal water and sewer systems, but even in rural areas with their own water systems, water pumping can be one of the largest energy consumers — to operate deep-well 220-volt submersible pumps. Water-efficient clothes washerI remember when I bought my first new clothes washer 25 or 30 years ago, I had to work pretty hard to find a water-conserving horizontal-axis (front-loading) model. At the time there was only one U.S. manufacturer producing such a product for home use (White-Westinghouse).Fortunately, it is a very different situation today, with nearly every manufacturer offering such products. We bought a Whirlpool Duet washer, which I think is the best of the U.S.-made models. We had one in our last home and were very pleased with it. The only difference with this purchase is that the washer (and matching dryer) are larger, since Whirlpool shifted manufacturing to the U.S. from Mexico, and the units grew in size.Because we typically wash clothes in cold water, our direct energy use for clothes washing is very low. Alex is founder of BuildingGreen, Inc. and executive editor of Environmental Building News. In 2012 he founded the Resilient Design Institute. To keep up with Alex’s latest articles and musings, you can sign up for his Twitter feed. RELATED ARTICLES Saving Water by Conserving EnergyResilient Design: Water in a Drought-Prone EraReduce Water UseSaving Energy by Saving WaterAll About Washing MachinesAll About Dishwashers Can Swimming Pools Be Green?The Uncertain Future of Phoenix and Las VegasWater, Water EverywhereIn the West, Drought Ends ‘Era of the Lawn’The DOE Showerhead RuleGBA Encyclopedia: Green Irrigation Low-flow faucetsThe Kohler faucets in our two bathrooms are WaterSense-certified at 1.5 gpm, vs. the maximum 2.2 gpm.Interestingly, almost the entire plumbing industry has shifted to 1.5 gpm flow rates — the level required for WaterSense certification. Because we rarely turn on the faucet full-force, our actual consumption is a lot lower. Screw-in faucet aerators are inexpensive and can quickly convert most standard faucets to water-saving versions. The water-energy nexusBefore getting into specifics, it’s important to note that there is a close relationship between water and energy — even when we’re not talking about hot water. At the macro scale, it takes at lot of water to produce energy.With electricity generation, each kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity generated (based on national averages) consumes 2.0 gallons of water, according to a 2003 paper by National Renewable Energy Laboratory researchers. This is mostly from evaporation of water at thermoelectric power plants, but also includes evaporation of water at reservoirs used for hydropower generation.Other energy sources consume a lot of water in production. We can refer to this as the “embodied water” of these energy sources. Simply pumping oil out of the ground isn’t all that water-intensive, but when we start getting into “enhanced recovery” technologies like hydraulic fracturing (fraking) the water intensity goes way up — and can be a limiting factor. It may increasingly lead to conflicts with farmers in arid regions that are rich in underground oil and natural gas.
Hear from Oscar nominated film editors as they share their thoughts and experiences in cutting the year’s best movies.The Invisible Art Visible Artists annual seminar is a real treat for any editor or aspiring editor. It’s a rare chance to get all of the Academy Award nominated film editors in one room talking about their work.In this year’s hour and a half discussion, available online thanks to Moviola.com, you can hear at length from the editors of: American Hustle (Alan Baumgarten A.C.E, Jay Cassidy A.C.E., Crispin Struthers), 12 Years A Slave (Joe Walker), Gravity (Mark Sanger, Alfonso Cuaron), Captain Philips (Christopher Rouse A.C.E) and Dallas Buyers Club (John Mac McMurphy, Martin Pensa). This year’s Oscar winner was Mark Sanger and Alfonso Curaon for Gravity.As the recording of the event is only available via Moviola.com you’ll have to head there to check it out – but you can do so in 1080p.A Conversation With Joe WalkerFor a further insight into the art and craft of film editing check out this 20 minute conversation with Joe Walker, editor of 12 Years A Slave, in which he discusses his editing career and close collaboration with director Steve McQueen.More Insights from Invisible Art, Visible Artists EventsTo check out a fistful of more snippets from the 2010 IAVA event – featuring editors like Kirk Baxtor and Angus Wall (The Social Network), Tariq Anwar (The Kings Speech), John Harris (127 Hours), Andrew Weisblum (The Black Swan), Pamela Martin (The Fighter) head here.
Just about any way you slice it, the 2017-18 campaign was a trying one for Carmelo Anthony.Although Melo’s sole season with the Oklahoma City Thunder saw him reach the postseason for the first time in five years, he never achieved the same sort of individual success that teammates Russell Westbrook and Paul George did, posting career lows in scoring, usage, true shooting percentage,1He logged the worst true shooting percentage in the NBA among the 33 players who took 15 shots or more per game in at least 50 games last season. assists and win shares per 48 minutes. His playoff showing was a letdown at both ends of the floor, so much so that he rode the bench for long chunks of time during the last two games of Oklahoma City’s season. And once the Thunder made their first-round exit, Anthony bristled at the idea of accepting a bench role next season, saying, “That’s out of the question.”“I think the player that they wanted me to be and needed me to be was for the sake of this season,” Anthony told reporters after his exit interview with the club. “As far as being effective as that type of player, I don’t think I can be effective as that type of player.”Anthony will reportedly sign with the Houston Rockets for the veteran’s minimum once he’s officially been traded to Atlanta (and then released). So with his career at a crossroads, his comments raise the questions: Can he still be effective at this point? If he can, what would that role look like?Considering the film, his numbers and the potential fit with his new teammates, Houston figures to be Anthony’s last, best hope for a situation in which he can be a productive scorer again.Much of that hope will be predicated on Anthony’s ability to play off of James Harden and Chris Paul in a more effective way than he did with Westbrook. In that regard, Anthony’s life may get easier this season. While Anthony certainly underperformed last year — and likely could have shown more willingness to accept a secondary spot-up role sooner in OKC — the fit with Westbrook wasn’t always ideal, either. One big reason for that: Westbrook, despite being a triple-double machine, isn’t always the most accurate passer.Westbrook drives to the basket more than any NBA player, using his blistering speed and leaping ability to get around and over defenders. (When he opts to make jump passes, he uses both skills at the same time.) But that often leaves him off balance as he tries to hit a shooter who’s already spotting up and in position for an open look. And it sometimes results in a pass being thrown at a shooter’s ankles, or up above his head, forcing a teammate like Anthony to take a split second to reposition himself or extend further than he should have to in order to get off a jumper.Video Playerhttps://fivethirtyeight.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/OffTargetPasses.mp400:0000:0003:29Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume.On passes from Westbrook, Anthony hit just 34 percent of catch-and-shoot threes, down from the 36 percent that an average player would have been expected to make from those spots (based on defender distance, according to data from Second Spectrum).2It may be worth noting that Anthony also shot worse than expected from deep during the previous season off passes from Derrick Rose. Taken together, Anthony’s struggles with Westbrook and Rose may suggest that he isn’t as accurate a shooter when catching passes from highly acrobatic point guards who throw so many jump passes. By contrast, Anthony shot 41 percent on catch-and-shoot threes when fed by George, up from the 36 percent an average player would have been expected to make.“As a scorer, you want the ball in rhythm, where you can catch it and go right up and not have to alter your stance or your shot,” Anthony told reporters in March. “Any small thing — the pass could be off a little bit — [could be] a big difference between making a shot and missing a shot.”Westbrook commits more bad-pass turnovers (4.1 per 100 passes) than any NBA player, according to Second Spectrum. Then again, Harden (3.5) ranks No. 2 in the same metric, raising the obvious question of whether things would be any better for Anthony with the Rockets. But Harden and Paul — neither of whom is wildly athletic or reliant on speed — throw much different types of passes, and both are known for hitting teammates in the hands when they spot up.That pinpoint accuracy, paired with the abundance of open shots that Houston players get in the team’s wide-open offense, is the potential upside for Anthony with the Rockets. Still, there’s the issue of whether Anthony is willing to play off of the ball again. While the Rockets isolate even more than Oklahoma City does, Houston’s offense will be at its best when Harden and Paul are running the show, even if Anthony continues to view himself as a top-end scorer. Another potential problem: Anthony and Rockets coach Mike D’Antoni didn’t necessarily see eye-to-eye when they worked together in New York several years ago.Anthony’s defiant season-ending presser wasn’t very different from the one in which the Thunder introduced him, where he laughed off the suggestion that he could potentially come off the bench to stagger OKC’s scoring threats. And as obvious as it to NBA observers that Anthony isn’t anywhere close to a No. 1 option anymore, it’s not too surprising that he doesn’t see that for himself. He connected on 44 percent of his 2-point jumpers when tightly guarded last season (meaning a defender was standing within 2 feet of him), slightly better than the 42 percent he drilled four seasons ago, per NBA Advanced Stats. Translation: He can still hit tough shots.But in a way, even one of Anthony’s best attributes is somewhat problematic in nature. While teams will always be in search of players who can knock down an undesirable shot — especially in the playoffs — today’s NBA, with all the spacing it provides, prioritizes the notion of reducing such attempts. (This is particularly true in Houston, which led the NBA in wide-open 3-point tries last season.) So, ideally, a player will bring more to the table than simply making tough jumpers.And from that standpoint, it’s hard to see how Anthony would give the Rockets an upgrade over what they just lost in free agency, with Trevor Ariza and Luc Mbah a Moute both departing. Those wings were among the most skilled in the league on defense, and they were key cogs in the club’s ability to switch nearly every pick-and-roll action if it chose to.Plugging Anthony into the Rockets’ defense figures to mitigate a great deal of that advantage. In fact, Utah — in an effort to punish the Thunder for playing Anthony such heavy minutes — ran pick-and-rolls over and over during the teams’ first-round series, seeking to force Anthony into switches onto ball-handlers. The Jazz found success with that approach, scoring 1.22 points per direct screen when getting Anthony to switch onto a pick-and-roll ball-handler, per Second Spectrum. For context, Kevin Durant — who led the league in efficiency when handling the ball in pick-and-roll situations — averaged 1.15 points per direct screen set for him during the season.3Among offensive players who faced a minimum of 150 switches in direct pick-and-roll situations.Video Playerhttps://fivethirtyeight.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/MeloSwitches.mp400:0000:0001:26Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume.With all that in mind, the Rockets’ defense — which helped lift the team into true championship contention last year — looks set to take a step back this season with Anthony in the fold. Houston can only hope to make up for it on offense, where it has a chance to unlock some of what made Anthony lethal at times with the Nuggets and the Knicks, in an earlier phase of his career.But one thing seems almost certain at this point for the Brooklyn-born Melo: If the 34-year-old can’t make it work in Houston, with a pair of passers as otherworldly as Paul and Harden, he probably can’t make it work anywhere.
Director Kunal Kohli’s acting debut Phir Se is yet to get its release date as the filmmaker is not getting a suitable week for it. The Hum Tum director, who is making his foray into acting opposite TV star Jennifer Winget, said he is looking for a good date. “#PhirSe release date being worked. Next few months packed, looking for a good date, once locked music will follow accordingly,” Kunal posted on Twitter.Phir Se, co-directed by Kunal and debut filmmaker Ajay Bhuyan, is said to be based on a separated couple living in London and they are trying to come to terms with the consequences of their split. The trailer of the film released on April 7, 2015. Phir Se was earlier scheduled to hit theatres in May. The film faced legal trouble when writer Jyoti Kapoor filed a suit against the director for copyright infringement.