An article in the March 3 issue of Nature1 explains how tissues communicate to fight off infection. As reported before, cells display samples of the proteins they contain on their outer membranes, a process called presentation. Killer T cells wander around, like cops, looking at the presentations. When they recognize alien proteins (antigens), they respond by killing the cell (see 06/27/2003 entry, “Cell to Phagocyte: I’m Dying – Eat Me”). Now, Dutch scientists Neijssen et al.2 have found that cells in tissues can also pass these flags to neighboring cells through passageways between them called gap junctions. The uninfected neighboring cells thus signal the cops that a firebreak needs to be constructed to avoid further damage. Australian biologists William Heath and Francis Carbone explain:As well as providing another possible mechanism for initiating immunity by dendritic cells, the gap-junction-mediated cross-presentation described by Neijssen et al. offers an interesting method of efficiently limiting the spread of replicating virus. The authors show that not only will a cell expressing viral proteins be killed by T cells, but so will its closest neighbours – because they present viral peptides obtained through gap junctions. Extending the destruction to adjacent cells may provide a ‘fire-break’ around an infection, ensuring that if low levels of virus have spread to surrounding cells, but have yet to produce sufficient protein to allow recognition, such cells will still be eliminated. (Emphasis added in all quotes.) The width of the firebreak is controlled, they explain: “The rapid degradation of peptides within the cell’s cytosol means that the spread of peptides through gap junctions will be rather limited, probably allowing the targeting of adjacent cells but not those more than one cell distant from the infection. Thus, the integrity of targeting should be maintained, with only limited bystander destruction.”1Heath and Carbone, “Coupling and cross-presentation, Nature 434, 27 – 28 (03 March 2005); doi:10.1038/434027a2Neijssen et al., “Cross-presentation by intercellular peptide transfer through gap junctions,” Nature 434, 83 – 88 (03 March 2005); doi:10.1038/nature03290.Neither article attempts to explain how such a clever protective technique could have evolved.(Visited 11 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
15 October 2010 South Africa’s Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) created over 190 000 job opportunities between April and June 2010, putting it well on track to achieve its target of 642 000 new jobs in the 2010/11 financial year. “This figure reflects an impressive 30 percent achievement against the set annual target of 642 000 new work opportunities in the 2010/11 financial year,” Public Works Minister Geoff Doidge told the inaugural EPWP Summit at the Inkosi Albert Luthuli Convention Centre in Durban this week. “There are still three more quarters to go to achieve 642 000 work opportunities.” The infrastructure sector created the most work opportunities, with KwaZulu-Natal leading the way, followed by the Eastern Cape and Gauteng provinces. The government’s Expanded Public Works Programme gives unskilled and unemployed people the opportunity to earn an income from short-term employment through labour-intensive projects. They are mainly employed in the infrastructure, economy, environment, cultural and social sectors. The programme is a key component in the government’s drive to halve unemployment in South Africa by creating 4.5-million new work opportunities by 2014. Doidge urged officials from the 283 municipalities participating in the summit to use the state’s resources to address social and infrastructure backlogs. “There is a need for local government to maximise their efforts during phase two in the implementation of the programme,” the minister said, adding that more funds would be committed to the programme. Source: BuaNews
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Soybean harvest in Parana, Brazil, the country’s second-largest soybean-producing state, has reached 25%, well ahead of the 2018 pace.Brazilian government forecasting agency DERAL says, although the state suffered through a mini-drought in December, early yield results show no material losses. Only 6% of the state’s soy fields are reportedly in bad condition. The number his still higher than last year’s zero ‘bad’ fields.DERAL says 24% of fields are considered average, compared to 14% in the last cycle. The remaining fields are considered in good condition. As it stands currently, Brazil’s crop will be short of the record-high estimates of 122 million metric tons. Weather issues in Brazil are not widespread or significant enough to put a major dent in production.Elsewhere in South America, harvest expectations in Argentina are nearing 53- to 55-million metric tons, coming off 38 MMT in 2018.
DefinitionKyphoplasty is used to treat painful compression fractures in the spine. In a compression fracture, all or part of a spine bone collapses.The procedure is also called balloon kyphoplasty.Alternative Names Balloon kyphoplastyDescriptionKyphoplasty is done in a hospital or outpatient clinic.You may have local anesthesia (awake and unable to feel pain). You will likely also receive medicine to help you relax and feel sleepy.You may receive general anesthesia. You will be asleep and unable to feel pain.You lie face down on a table. The health care provider cleans the area of your back and applies medicine to numb the area.The doctor places a needle through the skin and into the spine bone. Real-time x-ray images are used to guide the doctor to the correct area in your lower back.A balloon is placed through the needle, into the bone, and then inflated. This restores the height of the vertebrae. Cement is then injected into the space to make sure it does not collapse again.Why the Procedure Is PerformedA common cause of compression fractures of the spine is thinning of your bones, or osteoporosis. Your doctor may recommend this procedure if you have severe and disabling pain for 2 months or more that does not get better with bed rest, pain medicines, and physical therapy.Your doctor may also recommend this procedure if you have a painful compression fractures of the spine due toCancer, including multiple myelomaInjury that caused broken bones in the spineRisksadvertisementKyphoplasty is generally safe. Complications may include:BleedingInfectionAllergic reactions to medicinesBreathing or heart problems if you have general anesthesiaLeakage of the bone cement into surrounding area (this can cause pain if it affects the spine or nerves). Leakage can lead to other treatments to remove the cement.Before the ProcedureBefore surgery, always tell your doctor or nurse:If you could be pregnantWhat drugs you are taking, even those you buy without a prescriptionIf you have been drinking a lot of alcoholDuring the days before the surgery:You may be asked to stop taking aspirin, ibuprofen, coumadin (warfarin), and other drugs that make it hard for your blood to clot.Ask your doctor which drugs you should still take on the day of the surgery.If you smoke, tried to stopOn the day of the surgery:You will usually be told not to drink or eat anything for several hours before the test.Take your drugs your doctor told you to take with a small sip of water.Your doctor or nurse will tell you when to arrive.After the ProcedureYou will probably go home on the same day of surgery. You should not drive, unless your doctor says it is OK.After the procedure:You should be able to walk. However, it is best to stay in bed for the first 24 hours, except to use the bathroom.After 24 hours, slowly return to your regular activities.Avoid heavy lifting and strenuous activities for at least 6 weeks.Apply ice to the wound area if you have pain where the needle was inserted.Outlook (Prognosis)People who have kyphoplasty often have less pain and a better quality of life after the surgery. They often need fewer pain medicines, and can move better than before.ReferencesWardlaw D, Cummings SR, Van Meirhaeghe J, et al. Efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty compared with non-surgical care for vertebral compression fracture (FREE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009;373(9668):1016-24.Berenson J, Pflugmacher R, Jarzem P, et al.; Cancer Patient Fracture Evaluation (CAFE) Investigators. Balloon kyphoplasty versus non-surgical fracture management for treatment of painful vertebral body compression fractures in patients with cancer: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011 Mar;12(3):225-35.Anselmetti GC, Muto M, Guglielmi G, et al. Percutaneous vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. Radiol Clin North Am. 2010 May;48(3):641-9.Review Date:10/14/2013Reviewed By:C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
MONTRÉAL, Jan. 22, 2019 – Cultural infrastructure provides work and presentation spaces for Canadian artists, in addition to making arts and culture more accessible to the public. Supporting upgrades to these creative spaces is important to the Government of Canada.Marc Miller, Member of Parliament (Ville-Marie–Le Sud-Ouest–Île-des-Soeurs) and Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations, today announced $600,000 in funding for Productions Réalisations Indépendantes de Montréal (PRIM). Mr. Miller made this announcement on behalf of the Honourable Pablo Rodriguez, Minister of Canadian Heritage and Multiculturalism.This support, provided through the Canada Cultural Spaces Fund, will allow the organization to revamp its facilities to improve and increase its services to media artists. Quotes“Thanks to PRIM’s renovation project, many media artists will have modern workspaces to do what they love. The Government of Canada knows that access to quality cultural spaces is an essential part of the creative process. We are pleased to support PRIM in this important project.”—The Honourable Pablo Rodriguez, Minister of Canadian Heritage and Multiculturalism“The City of Montréal is known worldwide for its talented media artists. This reputation is thanks in no small part to organizations like PRIM that provide artists with unparalleled guidance and facilities to do their work. I am thrilled that the Government of Canada is supporting this project, which will help establish a highly creative and innovative work environment.”—Marc Miller, Member of Parliament (Ville-Marie–Le Sud-Ouest–Île-des-Soeurs) and Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations“We are very pleased and proud to be able to carry out this project that is essential to help us adapt to the new methods and approaches of our independent artists, improve our support services, and establish an infrastructure that measures up to their talents and standards.”—Khoa Lê, President of the Board of Directors, PRIMQuick FactsFounded in 1981, PRIM is a non-profit organization with a dual mandate: to support the production of contemporary media works and to actively participate in the training and professionalism of independent media artists.By offering programs that support creation and offer access to state-of-the-art facilities, PRIM contributes to the annual production of about 100 media art works, which involves the work of 250 artists.The project involves renovating and upgrading rooms in the PRIM building located at 2180 Fullum Street in Montréal. There are plans to expand the building from the inside and to add several rooms, such as a sound lab, a video art studio, a room for professional training, and a collaborative workspace.Specialized creation and production equipment will be installed in the new spaces. All of these upgrades will allow PRIM to make the best use of their spaces.The Canada Cultural Spaces Fund supports the improvement of physical conditions for arts, heritage, culture and creative innovation. The fund supports renovation and construction projects, the acquisition of specialized equipment and feasibility studies related to cultural spaces.Associated LinksProductions Réalisations Indépendantes de MontréalCanada Cultural Spaces Fund Twitter Facebook Advertisement LEAVE A REPLY Cancel replyLog in to leave a comment Login/Register With: Advertisement Advertisement