Background: Duplicated genes are common in vertebrate genomes. Their persistence is assumed to be either a consequence of gain of novel function (neofunctionalisation) or partitioning of the function of the ancestral molecule (sub-functionalisation). Surprisingly few studies have evaluated the extent of such modifications despite the numerous duplicated receptor and ligand genes identified in vertebrate genomes to date. In order to study the importance of function in the maintenance of duplicated genes, sea bream (Sparus auratus) PAC(1) receptors, sequence homologues of the mammalian receptor specific for PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide), were studied. These receptors belong to family 2 GPCRs and most of their members are duplicated in teleosts although the reason why both persist in the genome is unknown. Results: Duplicate sea bream PACAP receptor genes (sbPAC(1)A and sbPAC(1)B), members of family 2 GPCRs, were isolated and share 77% amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR with specific primers for each gene revealed that they have a differential tissue distribution which overlaps with the distribution of the single mammalian receptor. Furthermore, in common with mammals, the teleost genes undergo alternative splicing and a PAC(1)Ahop1 isoform has been characterised. Duplicated orthologous receptors have also been identified in other teleost genomes and their distribution profile suggests that function may be species specific. Functional analysis of the paralogue sbPAC(1)s in Cos7 cells revealed that they are strongly stimulated in the presence of mammalian PACAP(27) and PACAP(38) and far less with VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide). The sbPAC(1) receptors are equally stimulated (LOG(EC50) values for maximal cAMP production) in the presence of PACAP27 (-8.74 +/- 0.29 M and -9.15 +/- 0.21 M, respectively for sbPAC(1)A and sbPAC(1)B, P > 0.05) and PACAP(38) (-8.54 +/- 0.18 M and -8.92 +/- 0.24 M, respectively for sbPAC(1)A and sbPAC(1)B, P > 0.05). Human VIP was found to stimulate sbPAC(1)A (-7.23 +/- 0.20 M) more strongly than sbPAC(1)B (-6.57 +/- 0.14 M, P < 0.05) and human secretin (SCT), which has not so far been identified in fish genomes, caused negligible stimulation of both receptors. Conclusion: The existence of functionally divergent duplicate sbPAC(1) receptors is in line with previously proposed theories about the origin and maintenance of duplicated genes. Sea bream PAC(1) duplicate receptors resemble the typical mammalian PAC(1), and PACAP peptides were found to be more effective than VIP in stimulating cAMP production, although sbPAC(1)A was more responsive for VIP than sbPAC(1)B. These results together with the highly divergent pattern of tissue distribution suggest that a process involving neofunctionalisation occurred after receptor duplication within the fish lineage and probably accounts for their persistence in the genome. The characterisation of further duplicated receptors and their ligands should provide insights into the evolution and function of novel protein-protein interactions associated with the vertebrate radiation.
View post tag: visits View post tag: British View post tag: Missouri View post tag: News by topic View post tag: Lord The first sea lord and chief of naval staff of the British Royal Navy visited the Virginia-class attack submarine USS Missouri (SSN 780), the seventh ship of the class, during his tour of General Dynamics Electric Boat, Oct. 17.Adm. Mark Stanhope serves as the Royal Navy’s professional head and chairman of the navy board.Capt. Mike Bernacchi, commander, Submarine Squadron 4 assisted in the tour aboard the Virginia-class submarine and reflected on his consistent and positive interactions with the UK navy throughout his naval career. “Throughout my naval career I have had great interactions with the Royal Navy and through engagements, such as today’s visit aboard USS Missouri by the first sea lord, we continually share information which contributes to our alliance and makes us both stronger,” said Bernacchi.Bernacchi said during the visit aboard Missouri discussions centered on construction, modernization, and training of both navies’ submarine forces. “The visit with the Royal Navy’s first sea lord was very engaging,” said Bernacchi. “We discussed the advantage of the new training technologies and how that has led to advances in onboard warfighting preparation which our captains are using to very effectively prepare our Virginia-class boats for at sea operations.”The visit to Missouri by Stanhope related to previous assignments during his 41 years of service to the UK navy. Previously, he has commanded the conventional submarine HMS Orpheus and the nuclear-powered submarine HMS Splendid. He later served in other submarine roles to include teaching prospective submarine commanding officers the “Perisher” course and commanded the Submarine Sea Training Organisation.Missouri is undergoing its post-shakedown availability at General Dynamics Electric Boat in Groton, Conn. During the availability, Missouri is receiving several system upgrades in addition to normal maintenance.Missouri is built to excel in anti-submarine warfare; anti-ship warfare; strike warfare; special operations; intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; irregular warfare; and mine warfare missions. Adept at operating in both the world’s shallow littoral regions and deep waters, Missouri will directly enable five of the six Navy maritime strategy core capabilities – sea control, power projection, forward presence, maritime security, and deterrence.The Virginia-class attack submarine is the fifth U.S. Navy ship named after the “Show Me State.” The last USS Missouri (BB 63) was the battleship that hosted the Japanese surrender ceremony that ended World War II.[mappress]Source: navy, October 21, 2011 View post tag: Naval October 21, 2011 First Sea Lord, Chief of Naval Staff of British Royal Navy Visits USS Missouri View post tag: of View post tag: first View post tag: Navy View post tag: Staff View post tag: chief View post tag: sea View post tag: Royal Back to overview,Home naval-today First Sea Lord, Chief of Naval Staff of British Royal Navy Visits USS Missouri View post tag: USS Training & Education Share this article
Two oil tankers have been damaged in the Strait of Hormuz, according to the US 5th Fleet, with one reportedly being targeted by a torpedo.Front Altair, a 110,000 dwt tanker operated by Norwegian shipping company Frontline, is the one hit by a torpedo, shipping news site Tradewinds reported citing industry sources.Kokuka Courageous, another vessel underway in the Strait of Hormuz, was damaged following an “incident on board”, BSM Ship Management – the vessel manager – said on its website on Thursday.The company further said a crewmember had been lightly injured in the incident and the rest of the crew abandoned ship.The ship suffered damages to its hull starboard side.As for the Front Altair, reports say the vessel is on fire and even in danger of sinking.M.T Front Altair has been abandoned and its all crew has been safely picked up by nearest vessel Hyundai Dubai.Master of Hyundai Dubai reported cause of fire on Front Altair as surface attack.Front Altair is a loaded tanker on fire and adrift about 18 NM off our position. pic.twitter.com/QNuSbQF95b— Maya Al Amri/قابوس (@maya_alamri2) June 13, 2019The United Kingdom Maritime Trade Operations confirmed it was looking into an incident in the Gulf of Oman, near the Iranian coast.Japan’s ministry of economy and trade said the attacked tankers carried “Japan-related cargo”.While both incidents occurred on the same day with the vessels relatively close to each other, it was not immediately clear whether the two incidents were related.It is worth noting that the June 13 incident occurred almost exactly a month after four commercial ships were subjected to sabotage near United Arab Emirates territorial waters in the Gulf of Oman. View post tag: strait of hormuz Photo: Illustration. Source: Pxhere Share this article
The Master of St Catherine’s College, Cambridge has issued a public statement apologising to a black student who was “physically prevented” by a porter from entering the grounds for a meeting with a professor. Collin Edouard, a master’s student at Wolfson College, reported that he was “grabbed” by a porter who refused him entry even after he had informed him that he was a student and given him the professor’s name and room number. It was only after his white friend, coincidentally present at the same time, confirmed he was a student that he was allowed to enter. The statement from the Master, Professor Sir Mark Welland, was posted on the college website 4 days after the incident occured. Welland said: “..the College wishes to make a sincere and public apology to Mr Collin Edouard, a student at Wolfson College.” Since then, Eduoard has created the hashtag #speakout on social media to support students of colour. He reports receiving numerous messages from strangers after posting the hashtag, recounting their experiences of racism at the University. He told Cherwell: “My situation is hardly unique at Oxbridge so I want people to begin to have these important conversations. Our feelings are valid and we will no longer tolerate any form of mistreatment. We will use our voices and #speakout.” “This was entirely unacceptable in the context of a student attending a supervision. Our processes did not ensure that Mr Edouard was treated with the highest level of respect and courtesy that we aspire to. We are aware that, despite our best intentions, he felt singled out based on race and we are truly sorry for the distress this has caused him. We are investigating the matter in line with the appropriate processes and will remain in contact with the student in question to review how we all ensure that visitors are welcomed consistently going forwards. St Catherine’s communications office told Cherwell they had “Nothing further to add to the statement from Friday.” Edouard took to Facebook later that day to express his anger and distress at the issue, saying: “It took someone I knew that happened to be there at an unusual time, to tell them I am in fact a student. His tone changed once the person I know told them I’m a student then they tried to tell me it’s cause they have had problems with protesters in the past. I angrily told them that regardless of what your issues have been in the past you CANNOT put your hands on anyone.” An investigation by The Independent reported that the number of racist incidents in universities across the UK rose by over 60 per cent between 2015 and 2017. Edouard told Cherwell: “I think the masters apology was a good start in a more productive direction and I’m looking forward to seeing the steps they plan to take in order to minimize these kinds of situations”. The incident follows the controversial events at the Oxford Union in November of last year when Ghanaian postgraduate student Ebenezer Azmati was removed from a debate. “As a College we are committed to recognising and preventing discriminatory behaviour, conscious or unconscious. I, along with the Senior Tutor and other colleagues at St Catharine’s, will also be openly sharing any learnings with the rest of the collegiate university.”
Load remaining images Last night marked an exciting performance at the Portsmouth Pavilion, with both Yonder Mountain String Band and The String Cheese Incident sharing a billing. While String Cheese has been known to dabble in a variety of genres, there’s no denying that bluegrass is at their hearts, and a choice collaborations with the folks of Yonder during last night’s show only strengthened those grassy roots.YMSB opened up the show with a great set, letting their newest members – Allie Kral and Jacob Jolliff – shine during the performance. Cheese then took the stage for their two-set performance, as keyboardist Kyle Hollingsworth proclaimed “Never miss a Sunday Show!” He wasn’t kidding. The first set was highlighted by a cover of Bob Marley’s “Could You Be Loved” into the Cheese tune “Beautiful.”After a short break, the big moment of the night came at the start of the second set. The two bands teamed up for a full band collaboration, playing three songs: the Stanley Brothers tune, “Think Of What You’ve Done” into Bill Monroe’s “Big Mon,” as well as the traditional folk ballad “Blackberry Blossom.”SCI is gearing up for a 3-night stand at Red Rocks Amphitheatre this coming weekend (July 14th-16th), where they will also be inducted into the Red Rocks Hall of Fame.Check out some videos from the collaboration, courtesy of ricgrass on YouTube:Think Of What You’ve Done/Big MonBlackberry BlossomImages have been provided by Sam Shinault Photography, and a full gallery, as well as the band’s setlist, can be seen below. Setlist: The String Cheese Incident at Portsmouth Pavilion, Portsmouth, VA – 7/10/16S1: Restless Wind, Sometimes A River, Born On The Wrong Planet, Pigmy Pony, Stop Drop Roll, Could You Be Loved > BeautifulS2: Think Of What You’ve Done* > Big Mon*, Blackberry Blossom*, Son of a Preacher Man, Rollover > Valley of the Jig, Sweet Spot, You’ve Got the World, Hotel Window > Rollover* w/ Yonder Mountain String Band
David Charbonneau has loved the outdoors since he was a Boy Scout growing up in Ottawa. As a young man he was an avid hiker, a pursuit that eventually nested nicely with his growing interest in astrophysics and the dark, remote mountaintops where scientists turned the eyes of telescopes to the heavens.Now Charbonneau, a newly tenured professor of astronomy at Harvard, has become one of those scientists. Thinking back to his Scout days, he can’t remember a time when he wasn’t intrigued by the stars. His interest started as a pastime.“I had my little star chart, but being an astronomer didn’t seem like a real job to me, growing up,” he said.Charbonneau is humble about what he has accomplished. At 36, he has already had a fruitful career, making major contributions to the discovery of exoplanets, which orbit stars other than our sun. He heads the National Science Foundation’s MEarth Project, which is hunting for habitable super-Earths orbiting nearby small stars, and is a member of the NASA Kepler Mission to survey Earth-like planets.In his office sits a giant crate containing the planet-searching telescope he built as a postdoc — waiting to be unpacked in his office at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.“It looks like a little person when it’s all set up,” he said, laughing. “And it is a neat piece of equipment for students to see.”For all his success, Charbonneau seems focused as much on his students as on his own research.Since Charbonneau took the reins as director of undergraduate studies in the Department of Astronomy in 2008, he has spent hundreds of hours redesigning course offerings. His goal has been to offer a set of courses diverse enough so every student with an interest in astronomy can take an appropriately focused course.“Five years ago, we didn’t have much support for concentrators who didn’t want to get a doctorate in astrophysics,” he said. “Astronomy should be more accessible than that.”Charbonneau has personally taught many of those new courses, from a freshman one on stellar astronomy to an advanced course on exoplanets. Those who’ve taken his courses report that his ability to explain complex concepts in astrophysics to students of varying backgrounds is astounding.As a professor, Charbonneau has a reputation for being both approachable and inspiring. He is transparently excited about astronomy. He makes searching eye-contact with his students, scanning the room as if hoping to catch a moment of recognition in their faces. Even students outside his department find his zeal for astronomy to be infectious.But Charbonneau is surprisingly bashful about his success in the classroom.“Students want to learn about interesting things,” he said. “I’m lucky enough to know a lot about the universe, which is pretty interesting, if you ask me.”
Organisations are putting aside the retrenchment of the recession years and once again looking to IT to underpin the transformation and growth ambitions of their businesses. This is the clear takeaway from research conducted at EMC’s EMEA Forums in late 2012. More than 6,500 business and IT management professionals from 22 countries were surveyed to determine how businesses are changing in today’s economic climate.There are a few key parts to this survey that are telling of where the industry is headed. One of these reflects the complete change in the transformation of IT within the businesses that they support. Traditionally, IT has been a cost centre and a way of providing more automation to the business. That is changing fundamentally. We are still trying to drive out cost from our business but the change is that IT is becoming the fundamental change agent for agility, business operations and customer experience. This was borne out of the survey and features prominently in the conversations I have with CIOs and CFOs across EMEA every day.To remain competitive, there is a race to change and the challenges of the new IT environment lie in three key subject areas:Standardisation – Organisations must standardise more than they ever have before, which changes many business processes as well as how IT is viewedVirtualisation – Traditionally a server-based subject, organisations must now virtualise storage, network and applications completely so that business applications are separated from their physical infrastructureAutomation – Businesses cannot continue in an environment which is overwhelmingly manual. Processes must be automated, and at scale, so that IT resources can spend more time innovating and adding value back to the business.Investment in innovative technologies will enable organisations in EMEA to create disruptive business models and that will help ensure that the region can remain competitive on a global scale.For more from Adrian on the results of the survey, watch his full interview below.
Monday was the start of National School Lunch week and there was something to celebrate at Summit Street School in Essex Junction – a new milk contract that will provide 135 Vermont schools with milk that supports the health of our children, local farms and the environment.The Agency of Agriculture joined Vermont FEED, the Vermont Food Service Directors association to announce a new contract with Garelick Farms, based in Franklin, MA, that will provide schools with the choices they’ve been looking for, milk that comes from Vermont farms in 8 or 10 ounce recyclable plastic bottles and a chocolate milk formula with no high fructose corn syrup.”The sugar content of flavored milk can be a concern but this formula from Garelick farms, takes out the high fructose corn syrup and reduces the overall sugar content. They’ve also made sure kids still like it, and will drink it. It’s a good way to get more milk and more nutrients into our kids,” said Diane Bothfeld, Deputy Secretary of Agriculture.The Vermont Food Service Directors Association (FDA) represents 135 schools in Vermont and has worked for nine years to find a milk supplier that would meet their requirements.”Due to the ability of the Food Service Directors Association to negotiate a competitive bid process and to distribute through our local food distributor we were able to bring Garelick into the picture in Vermont where it did not exist before,” said Bob Clifford, Food Service Director for Chittenden Central Supervisory Union and Co-Director of FDA.The new milk deal also provides greater support for our Vermont dairy farmers. Last year school milk contained about 40 percent Vermont milk, now 85 to 90 percent of the school milk comes from Vermont farms. The switch to Vermont milk is representative of the growing Farm to School efforts around the state. Abbie Nelson, Director of Vermont FEED (Food Education Every Day) said, ‘More and more of the food in the 52,000 lunches served at Vermont schools every day comes from Vermont.’Deputy Secretary Bothfeld addressed third graders at Summit Street school about the importance of supporting local farmers and being healthy. ‘And you know what is really important, that when the milk tastes good and it is the right size, you drink more and I like that because I work with dairy farmers in Vermont and every time you guys drink more milk, they get sales and everyone does real well.”The new contract also allows schools to switch from non-recyclable wax coated cardboard containers to the recyclable plastic. “Recycling is good because if you just threw stuff away all the time it would take up the whole entire world,” said Oliver MacGillivary, a Summit Street student.It seems this switch is a win all around, thanks to the efforts of the Food Service Directors Association.Source: Vermont Agency of Agriculture
Your (kinda) daily outdoor news update for August 14, the day New York City had a black out, but not a rise in crime, in 2003, proving that New Yorkers can act like civilized humans, as long as there is no power:James River Manatee Make WavesA couple of critters in the greater James River have made headlines in the past couple of days. First the good, or at least not terrible, news:A manatee was spotted in the Appomattox River of Virginia over the weekend – the Appomattox is a major tributary of the James. As we all know, the gentle “sea cow” is a native of Florida, but it is not uncommon for the manatee to head north in the summer months when the water in Florida gets too dang hot. Instagrammer Cody Beeler caught the James River manatee on camera and the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries confirmed that it was, in fact, a sea cow. They dispatched personnel to track it down. Just for reference, manatees have been spotted as far north as Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Manatees are super cute, and majestic, and have been in Florida for 45 million years, which is great, but the best part of this whole story is the guy in the background of the original video who states it’s “like a giant poop.” Which, of course, it is.In less enjoyably inconsequential James River news, a Virginia Commonwealth University study has turned up high levels of a potentially liver-damaging toxin in blue crabs found in the river. The toxin, microcystin, is the result of harmful blue-green algae, builds up in the crabs during certain times of the year, and according to the study’s leader, “the toxins build up to levels that the World Health Organization considers unsafe for consumption.” Well, as can be expected, after the findings were released the Virginia Marine Resources Commission and the Virginia Department of Health immediately started damage control. You can read their comments on the matter at the Huffington Post.Calling All Paddlers!A unique opportunity has come up for paddlers in West Virginia. American Whitewater has requested a flow study for the New River Dries, and is inviting all paddlers to participate. The first of a series of studies will commence on August 21 and 22, to assess the recreational flow needs for whitewater paddling as part of the Hawks News Hydroelectric Project relicensing. The dam will release at 500cfs on the 22nd and 1000cfs on the 23rd – later this fall they will test up to 3000cfs – and the data/surveys collected from paddlers will be used to negotiate flow releases over the next few years. This is important stuff, so anyone and everyone who can participate should do so.More information on the study, how to sign up, and where to go can be found on AmericanWhitewater.org.Atlanta Fly Fishing and BeerThe Atlanta Journal Constitution is in love with the Western North Carolina Fly Fishing Trail, or at least writer Jon Waterhouse is. At the beginning of August, Waterhouse penned an ode to the fly fishing trail, including a history of the trail and the best spots to hit. He also includes a handy guide to being prepared that includes wearing polarized sunglasses and wearing earth tones. This could be a boon to NC fly guides, but could also be frustrating to have a bunch of city-slickers invading the rivers. Read it here.In other news, one of our favorite fly fishing blogs powered by two Blue Ridge natives, Gink & Gasoline, put out a list of breweries that go out of their way to help protect fish. Tops on the list is Sweetwater Brewing Company out of, where else, Atlanta, GA. Not only do they have a rainbow trout in their logo, they also donate hundreds of thousands of dollars to the Save the River Campaign. Other notables include New Belgium, Sierra Nevada, and surprisingly Anheuser-Busch. On the other end of the spectrum is Coors. Don’t drink Coors.